Fires in the rainforests of the Amazon River.

With an area of 5.5 million square kilometres, the Amazon rainforest is the largest in our world and corresponds to at least 10% of global biodiversity. It is the home of a very large population of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles, of which the 75% is unique there.
The Amazon rainforests have been burning for days. The Brazilian National Institute reported of nearly 2,500 new fires in just 48 hours across the country.

In addition to Brazil and Colombia, the Amazon forest extends to Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and Ecuador.

In Bolivia 9.5 million acres have been burned by fires raging in the country, according to official data.

The fires in the Amazon are linked to deforestation due to expansion mainly of agricultural activity, and from loggers that purify the earth for cultivation, grazing or building, and are considered common in the Amazon during dry Period from July to October.

The intensification of the massive deforestation of forests leads the forests to a tipping point. Where moisture oases were before will be transformed into savannas, with ominous consequences for the climate, wildlife and forest dwellers.
Deforestation is heading for an increase of 20-30 this year and is very likely to surpass 10,000 square kilometres for the first time in a decade.

On the map with green color marked is the existing forest, with yellow color deforestation until 2018 and in red the fires in August month.
Source: The New York Times


Direct effects of fire on the Environment and society

The Amazon plays a very important role in climate regulation in South America, affecting even the height of the rainfall in the region.
The fires, which seriously affect the biodiversity of the region, have intensified in the last two weeks and exacerbate the climate crisis due to carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of organic materials. The affected areas will be more vulnerable to drought, flood phenomena and other impacts of climate change due to lack of vegetation.
Forest losses also reduce the ability of ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide.
Smoke is exacerbating air quality in many areas that are relatively close to fires, but even more distant.
The direct impact of the fires on rare biodiversity is the death of thousands of animals and plants that live and thrive in these forests. Also, fires lead to habitat loss which also threatens the survival of these species.
Deforestation with the fires of tropical forests also has devastating global consequences. Forests are natural consumers of carbon dioxide, one of greenhouse gases whose gradual increase in the atmosphere contributes to global warming. The lack of rainforests not only eliminates these carbon absorption tanks, but in addition their combustion and decomposition releases even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, along with methane, another major greenhouse gas.

Climatic conditions.
The majority of climatic conditions around the world are ranked in the dry, semi-arid climate.
Although all climatic zones are subject to desertification, semi-dry areas in general and dry are very sensitive because they are only a few millimeters of rain from being converted into deserts.

Weather fluctuations.
Dry and semi-dry areas have a harsh climate that becomes even more difficult due to weather fluctuations. Under normal circumstances, there are more years with rainfall below average than average or more. Prolonged periods of drought are frequent. For example, droughts prevail so often in northeastern Brazil, that the area is called the polygon of drought. This weather differentiation does not cause desertification, but it works accelerants, especially in cases where man continues those land uses that need above average rainfall levels. The failure of the forecasting and planning efforts of the adverse periods coming as well as the proportional modification of land use types accelerates the desertification processes.

The following video shows the tragic image of the fires